Gulf Arab states face some of the most severe water shortages in the world. The situation emerges from limited availability of renewable water resources and escalating demands that result from the quick pace of economic development, rapid population growth, changing consumption patterns, and management inefficiencies. Accordingly, sustainable water provision is a persistent challenge facing governments of the Gulf Cooperation Council states as they seek to ensure human security, and maintain social and political stability. Furthermore, threats to water security include the possibility of a cyber, terrorist, or military attack targeting critical infrastructure and water supply networks. Thus, water security is a national security priority for GCC governments.