The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Fifth Assessment Report indicates that each of the last three decades has been successively warmer at the Earth’s surface than any preceding decade since 1850. According to the report, fossil fuels (coal, oil, and gas), which account for over 85 percent of global energy consumption, have contributed significantly to the historic increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and, thus, the observed increase in the global average temperature. Therefore, future access to fossil fuel-based energy must be constrained to limit climate changes to (relatively) safe levels and keep the increase in global mean surface temperatures well below 2 degrees Celsius. These are the objectives of the Paris climate accord, which entered into force in 2016. To this date, of 197 Parties to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change, 178 have ratified the Paris Agreement. The Gulf Arab states are all signatories to the Paris Agreement, and all except Oman have ratified the agreement and submitted Nationally Determined Contribution reports ahead of the Conference of Parties in Paris in December 2015.